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Alzheimer's disease

Progressive Memory loss / Cognitive impairment, Behavioral changes, Language impairment, Visuospatial impairment, Impairment of executive function, Attention deficits

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Difficulty lifting the front part of your foot and toes (footdrop), Weakness in your leg, Feet or ankles Hand weakness or clumsiness, Slurring of speech or trouble swallowing, Muscle cramps and twitching in your arms, Shoulders and tongue

Bell’s palsy

Twitching, Rapid onset of mild weakness on either side of the face, Drooping eyelid or corner of the mouth, Drooling, Dry eye or mouth, Impairment of taste, Excessive tearing in the eye, Pain around the jaw or in or behind your ear on the affected side

Brain Tumours

Seizures, Vomiting, Progressive headache, Visual disturbance-blurring, Visual disturbance-field cut, Visual disturbance-double vision, Hearing impairment, Limb weakness, Memory impairment, Behavioral disturbance, Loss of smell sensation

Cavernous Malformations

Headaches, Seizures, Changes in hearing or vision, Weakness, Paralysis, Difficulty thinking clearly or with remembering things

Central sleep apnea

Excessive daytime sleepiness, Loud snoring, observed episodes of breathing cessation during sleep, Abrupt awakenings accompanied by shortness of breath, Dry mouth or sore throat, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Loud snoring, Awakening with chest pain

Cerebellar astrocytoma

Headache, vomiting, irritability, failure to thrive, difficulty in performing acts requiring coordination

Cerebral aneurysm

Sudden onset of severe headache,Seizures,Pain in the nape of the neck,Stiffness of neck,Loss of consciousness,Limb weakness,Blurring of vision,Double vision

Cerebral palsy

Excessively stiff or floppy muscle tone, stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes, stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity), lack of muscle coordination (ataxia), tremors or involuntary movements, slow or writhing movements (athetosis), delays in reaching motor skills milestones, favoring one side of the body, difficulty walking, walking on toes, crouched or scissors-like gait with knees crossing, excessive drooling or problems with swallowing, difficulty with sucking or eating


A misshapen skull, an abnormal feeling or disappearing “soft spot” on your baby’s skull, slow or no growth of the head, development of a raised or hard ridge along affected sutures, increased pressure within the skull

Diabetic neuropathy

Unusual sensations (paresthesias), Numbness and pain in hands and feet, Weakness of the muscles in the feet and hands, Numbness and pain in the chest wall, Sensory or motor deficits in the face, Persistent nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Constipation


Headache, Fever, Aches in muscles or joints, Fatigue or weakness, Altered consciousness, Confusion or agitation, Personality changes, Seizures, Loss of sensation or paralysis in certain areas of the body, Muscle weakness, Hallucinations and double vision


Tonic clonic or jerky movements of limbs, Altered consciousness, Loss of consciousness, Facial jerky movements, Uprolling of eyes, Froth in the mouth, Tongue bite, Urinary incontinence

Giant cell arteritis

Headache, Fever, Tenderness of scalp, Pain in the jaw and tongue while chewing, Blurred vision, Visual loss, Myalgias / body aches


Headaches, Nausea, Vomiting, Slow and steady impairment of motor abilities and seizures, Weakness on one side of the body, Cognitive impairment, Confusion, Personality changes, Difficulty in speech, Loss of vision


Seizures, Endocrine Problems (diabetes and/or hormone regulation), Visual changes or double vision, Headaches, Paralysis of nerves/muscles of the face or half of the body, Respiratory changes, Clumsy, Uncoordinated walk, Hearing loss, Personality changes

Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia

Severe pain in back of the nose and throat (nasopharynx), Pain in the back of the tongue/ear/throat/tonsil area/voice box (larynx), Pain usually on one side, Pain triggered by chewing/coughing/laughing/speaking/swallowing

Hemifacial Spasm

Twitching of the muscles on one side of the face,Involuntary blinking of the eyes,Involuntary smacking/twitching of the lips, Hemi facial pain-sharp and shooting type for brief periods

Herniated disk

Back pain/neck pain, Pain radiating to the hand from the neck,Shooting pain along the back of the leg, Burning sensation along the back of the leg, Numbness of feet, Muscle weakness, Bladder or bowel disturbance

Huntington's disease

Involuntary dancing movements of limbs, Involuntary of facial muscles, Slowness of movements, Stiffness of muscles, Imbalance, Difficulty in talking and swallowing, Forgetfulness, Behavioral disturbances, Depression, Sleep disturbances, Personality change


An unusually large head, A rapid increase in the size of the head, A bulging or tense soft spot (fontanel) on the top of the head, Vomiting Sleepiness, Irritability, Poor feeding, Seizures, Eyes fixed downward (sunsetting of the eyes), Deficits in muscle

Idiopathic Hypersomnia

Recurring episodes of excessive day time sleepiness, Sleep paralysis of limbs, Hallucinations, Dizziness, Fainting, Headache

Inherited metabolic disorders

Apnea, Lethargy, Poor feeding, Tachypnea and Vomiting, Developmental delays, Birth defects, Abnormally small head, Seizures, Abnormal movements, Growth problems

Kennedy's Disease

Weakness of tongue and mouth muscles, Fasciculations and gradually increasing weakness of limb muscles with muscle wasting, Pre-mature muscle fatigue that begins in adolescence, Loss of sensation and numbness usually not noticeable, Hand tremor with volit


Altered movements, Awkward gait, Loss of speech, Lack of appetite, Impaired vision, Altered hearing, Slowdown in mental and physical development


Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, Armpits or groin, Abdominal pain or swelling, Chest pain, Coughing, Laboured breathing, Fatigue, Fever, Night sweats, Weight loss


Nausea, Vomiting, Sleepiness, Blurred vision, Loss of coordination, Slurred speech, Poor balance, Dizziness, Confusion


Fever, Headache, Nausea and vomiting Stiff neck, Photophobia (low tolerance to bright light), Confusion, Joint aches or pains, Drowsiness, Seizures, Fever, High-pitched cry, Pale and blotchy skin color, Not wanting to eat, Vomiting

Motor Neuron Disease

Difficulty lifting the front part of your foot and toes (footdrop), Weakness in your leg, feet or ankles Hand weakness or clumsiness, Slurring of speech or trouble swallowing, Muscle cramps and twitching in your arms, shoulders and tongue

Multiple Sclerosis

Bladder problems (frequent urination, urgency), Depression, Dizziness or vertigo, Impaired coordination (ataxia), Sensory symptoms (numbness, pain), Spasticity (muscle stiffness or spasms), Tremors, Trouble with short-term memory and concentration

Myasthenia gravis

Weakness of the eye muscles, Difficulty in swallowing, Slurred speech, Double vision, Altered speaking, Limited facial expressions, Problems chewing


Flat and light brown spots on the skin, Freckling in the armpits or groin area, Soft bumps on or under the skin, Bumps on the iris of the eye, Bone deformities, Learning disabilities, Impaired thinking skills (cognition) are common in children with NF1

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)

Blindness in one or both eyes, Weakness or paralysis in the legs or arms, Painful spasms, Loss of sensation, Bladder or bowel dysfunction from spinal cord damage

Obstructive sleep apnea

Excessive daytime sleepiness, Loud snoring, Observed episodes of breathing cessation during sleep, Abrupt awakenings accompanied by shortness of breath, Awakening with a dry mouth or sore throat Awakening with chest pain, Morning headache


Headaches, Seizures, Personality changes, Weakness in the arms or legs, Numbness, Nausea and vomiting, Vision loss

Optic neuritis

Blurring of vision, Loss of vision, Loss of colour vision, Pain in the orbit

Optical Neuritis

Pain, Vision loss, Loss of color vision, Flashing lights

Parkinson's disease

Tremor, slowed movement, rigid muscles, impaired posture and balance, loss of automatic movements, speech changes, writing changes


Tiredness or fatigability, Difficulty in climbing stairs, Difficulty in getting up from squatting position, Difficulty in lifting arms, Difficulty in swallowing

Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)

Stiffness and weakness and spasticity in legs, Tripping, Difficulty with balance and clumsiness, Weakness and stiffness progressing to your trunk and arms/hands/tongue, Hoarseness, Reduced rate of speaking, Slurred speech and drooling as the facial muscle

Primary progressive aphasia

Deterioration of language function in the form of difficulty in naming, Decreased fluency, Hesitancy in producing speech, Difficulty in understanding words


Back pain,Shooting pain along the back of the leg,Burning sensation along the back of the leg, Weakness of the toes, Inability to hold on to footwear, Numbness of the toes and foot, Difficulty to pass urine,Inability to appreciate bladder filling sensation

Spinal Stenosis

Back pain, Severe back pain on walking short distances that improves with rest, Weakness of feet on walking short distances that improves with rest, Burning sensation and pain in back and leg on prolonged standing or walking


Weakness of one side of the body, Difficulty in talking, Difficulty in swallowing, Visual disturbances, Imbalance, Double vision, Deviation of angle of mouth, Giddiness, Altered sensorium, Drowsiness, Unconsciousness