A glioma is a common kind of primary brain tumourthat begins in the brain or spinal cord—they make up 30% of all brain and central nervous system tumours and 80% of all malignant brain tumours. Called glioma because it arises from glial cells (non-neuronal cells that support and provide protection to neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system) it is usually found in the cerebral hemisphere of the brain—the largest, outermost part of the organ— that controls many vital functions including movement, speech, thinking, and emotions. In some case a glioma can also affect the brain stem— the lower part of the brain— that controls functions like breathing, blood pressure and heartbeat, the optic nerve and the cerebellum, a part of the brain that deals with balance and other non-cognitive functions.
The diagnosis of a glioma will typically involve a neurological exam that assesses your reflexes, vision, balance, speech, and other functions.Depending on the results, your doctor may request imaging tests such as an MRI, CT scan, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET) and an angiogram, or a combination of these.
Gliomas can be either benign or malignant. Depending on the type, your treatment will typically include any or all of the following: surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Surgery:Surgical procedures are often the preferred treatments for Gliomas. If the tumor can be removed without risking neurological damage, your doctor may remove a part of your skull, enter your brain, and remove as much of the tumor as possible.
Radiation therapy:Radiation therapy can be used to destroy any microscopic tumor cells that remain after surgery. If your Glioma is inoperable, meaning that it cannot be surgically removed without risking brain damage, radiation can also be used to treat the tumor and relieve your symptoms.
Chemotherapy: This involves the use of drugs that stop the growth of abnormal cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be given orally, through an IV, or placed at the site of your tumor through a shunt.
For the diagnosis and timely treatment of this condition, doctors at GIN use the most advanced of technologies and procedures currently available to diagnose the disease and mitigate its symptoms.
Thefollowing imaging tests help gauge the tumor’s effect on your brain activity and function, and blood flow:
- MRI: One of the most commonly used imaging tests for brain and spinal cord tumors, in an MRI usually a contrast dye is injected into the bloodstream to improve imaging of the tumor.
- CT scan: This helps identify certain types of tumors and can find signs of bleeding into a tumor. CT is especially helpful in identifying tumors close to or involving a bone.
- Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS): This test can provide biochemical information that help decide the treatment of Glioma.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and single-photo emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan: These tests can provide information about the functioning of organs affected by a tumor.
- Angiogram: A special dye is injected into the arteries that feed the brain that make the blood vessels visible in the X-ray. This test helps locate blood vessels in and around a brain tumor.
- Biopsy: The surgeon will typically remove a small tissue sample (biopsy) from the tumor for further study that can confirm its type.
Cerebral High Grade Glioma – 2010 NJ
Protective effect on normal brain tissue during a combinational therapy of 2-deoxy-d-glucose and hypofractionated irradiation in malignant gliomas
Asian Journal of Neurosurgery-Volume 8 / Issue 1 / January-March 2013